Enes Osmancevic, M.S.*
- Research scholar at University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee
- Member of International institute IFIMES
- graduate student at the School of Telecommunications, Ohio University, Athens - Ohio
The article is brief analysis of an atypical situation in development of internet technology applications in Bosnia and Herzegovina’s market, in comparison to the European environment and in also, in comparison to other modern communication technologies. The most descriptive example taken for this brief analysis is incomparable development of mobile telephony and ratio of mobile telephones users and Internet users.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is former social republic, and former unit of Yugoslav federation, without developed public sphere of communication, regarding to important social issues. Other part of this article is analyzing impact of new – Internet public that taking form throughout internet forum discussion groups, and sometimes having strong impact even on media content and traditional public sphere, that is basically latent and indolent to important social matters. Public sphere is social phenomenon immanent to all democratic societies and sine qua non for fast evolving process that Bosnian public have to pass in order to integrate that society into global political, economic and technological trends.
In the Bosnian Internet environment, the absence of a well-developed terrestrial fiber optic network makes the World Wide Web more likely to be »World Wide Wait«. The ideal option - FTH (Fiber to home) will be a dream of telecommunications enthusiasts for the next few years, because Telecom companies (there are three telecom companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina: »BH Telecom« - Sarajevo, »Telekom Srpske« - Banja Luka, and »Hrvatski Telekom Mostar« – Mostar) which are based on the ethnical and ideological criterion by which Bosnian society is divided.
The main criterion of the Bosnian political internal division is unfortunately ethnic criterion, which is in collision with nature of development of new technologies, common market, common economy and contemporary standards of communications. The author’s intention is not to minimize the potentials of telecom – companies. Furthermore, here it is important to emphasize a professional approach and relatively fast recovering of telecommunication potentials in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the war (1992-1995). The norms of transitions from socialistic to (postwar) market oriented economic policy were interrupted by a series of complex ethno-national processes, and it was not possible to make immune just one segment of the economy - telecommunications. These facts made Bosnian society different from the Western European environment in many aspects.
Relevance of the topic is not measurable primarily by financial potential of Bosnian or any other transitional market (Serbian, Croatian, Macedonian, Albanian or any other Balkan country). The intention of the authors was to investigate potential application of satellite internet in a country where terrestrial infrastructure cannot provide high-speed internet connection, to assume future tendencies in application of certain technology, and finally, examine effects for society. There is no dilemma what is more important in this case: both high communication potentials and infrastructure that will provide »information highways«, and needs of economy to use those highways are of equal importance. They can be developed just in interaction, as a product of progress in both spheres. Research also included brief historical overview of Bosnian recent history and some of the principal limitations in applying new communication technologies.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The total population of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is approximately 4 million. The number of the Internet users is estimated at 60.000 (20.000 in Republic of Srpska and 40.000 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) (BiH ima zabrinjavajuće mali procent Internet korisnika, October 13, 2003) which is around 2% of the total population. In comparison, to estimated number of Internet users in 15 countries of the European Union is 168 million, or 44,2 % of population (Internet usage in Europe, 2004).
Table of progress in number of internet subscribers in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the period 1997-2003
|Year||Number of Subscribers|
|2001||15.000 – 21.000|
In spite of the fact that all 3 national telecom companies in Bosnia are trying to contribute in the development of using Internet technologies, particularly with special discounts on ISP services for educational institutions (schools and universities), the growth of users is still extremely low. A reason for such trends rests on the following facts: the rate of unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 40%; weak domestic production and lack of international investments cannot support growth trends in Bosnian economy; the country still has a huge discrepancy between import and export (import : export = 4€ : 1€) (Bosnia and Herzegovina, December 18, 2003). Even so, national telecom firms are struggling for expansion of ADSL network (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) to all towns, with the help of income they make at mobile telephony and fix telephony services. The number of cellular phone users is disproportionably high in comparison to the total number of Internet users (total capacities of three mobile telephony providers are estimated on more than one million connections).
The telecommunications sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (based on the Dayton Peace Agreement) is regulated by Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA), first supervised by the international community. In 2002, CRA became the part of the local governmental structure. The agency is responsible for regulating the three principle fields of convergent communications: telecommunications, broadcasting and frequency spectrum management, for which the agency has three operational divisions. The Internet providing field is regulated by the Telecommunications division (Communication Regulatory Agency, Introduction, March 15, 2001).
Internet connection is mainly based on dial-up through the fixed telephony market, which is covered by three licensed operators. Besides big licensed operators of the fixed telephony (three national telecom firms), many small Internet providers (41 licensed ISP, and 58 network operators in total – according the Communication Regulatory Agency) are also offering their services. Public enterprise »BH Telecom« in Sarajevo is a leading provider regarding all the telecommunications services in the country. A minor number of small providers are offering wireless network solutions in urban areas (e.g. Inet, Tuzla - 128 kbps, and unlimited transfer) (Inet.ba, o nama, no date).
Other providers’ services are mainly based on existing fixed telephony and dependent on telecom’s infrastructure. Comparing the data of three major ISP providers, the estimated number of the ISDN users in B&H is less than 500 (companies, universities, some schools, media houses, governmental and international organizations). According to the »BH Telecom« data, 1900 km of optical cables was laid in BiH after 1995, and the number of digital telephone numbers increased to 67,6% of total installation (Annual Report, April 18, 2003). »BH Telecom« use satellite point-to-point link for connecting local users to World Wide Web backbone. »Telekom Srpske« use 155 Mbps links to Vienna (Austria) (O nama, 2002–2003) and »Hrvatski Telekom Mostar« use 34 Mbps links to Croatia and after that point-to-point satellite link to connect the Global net (HT Net – O nama, no date).
The reasons for disturbingly low number of Internet users, is the war that took place in Bosnia in the time when the World had made tremendous steps in building the information highways. Until Al Gore presented the plan of the Internet backbone to the USA Senate in the Spring 1993, and Bengeman’s report »The Europe and the Global information society« had offered list of priorities of the Internet technology, was the time when Bosnia had the brutal war. That war increased day by day, with a tragic list of killed, crippled, expatriated, burned and dishonored human intellect, activity, esthetic and spirituality.
INTERNET AND PUBLIC IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The influence of Internet at creating of public opinion in Bosnia and Herzegovina is determined by feature of latency. Such public opinion is not fully aware of its importance and importance of social issues immanent to the sphere of (political) public consciousness in democratic society. Bosnian public opinion is mainly passive and it is not public in wholly meaning of that word. Such extremely latent public mainly do not react to social events and they are not interested in solving important social problems that are matter of public discourse in societies of developed democratic standards. But in situations »at the edge« of social acceptable behavior or in the situations when exists a threat for own interests and system of values of a certain community, those latent public wake up and react.
The reactions of latent public are directed to the elimination of uncertainty and when that uncertainty is eliminated, the collective entity is returning back to a state of latency. When the publics will be induced to pass from the latent state to action, does not only depend on the public itself but on some external factors as well. Some research came with data on the influence of Internet at the latent public to transform from the state of passivity to the state of activity. Internet can help in establishing public opinion and animation of the public to pass from the state of passivity to state of activity. That influence will grow in Bosnia and Herzegovina society with the growth of the participants in communication within global virtual agora, what could be the second name for Internet.
Considering the fact that public in Bosnia and Herzegovina exists just on the primordial level, latent public will rely on traditional mass media as well as on new media. For instance relying on internet, especially on forum discussions that are partly transmitted within official channels of communication and more than that within unofficial ones, through the primary and secondary social groups will shape public opinion. The influence of internet at establishing of new public opinion category in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be emphasized more and more because of the fact that a special type of public has been formed – internet public. That dependence of Bosnia and Herzegovina public establishing Internet will grow parallel with the growth of the user of global communication network. One important factor that should be mentioned in order to capture a more objective idea of internet forum participants, that concerns Bosnian social reality, is the fact that significant amount of Bosnian citizens are dispersed all around the world, and that they are also participating in Internet discussionas.
Comparing the total number of inhabitants in B&H and total number of the users of Internet, the fact that only every 50th inhabitant uses Internet creates an implication for future democratization of the society. The reasons of a very few users of internet in B&H one could find in the long war period just in the time of growing of internet communication and a »construction of informational highway«.
The question of the development of new information technologies in B&H society, what is a condition for participation in global communication exchange, transfer of knowledge and part of modern economy, is actually the question of future development of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The growth of the users of Internet in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicates a dynamic growth of Internet users in the country. It is obvious when one compares data on the growth of the users during 2001 and 2002 with the growth during the period 1997-2002. In the first few months of 2001 the number of users of Internet has grown by 6000, which is almost equal to the number of the users during previous 4 years. Number of new Internet users in 2003 in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been doubled in comparison with the last year.
Although Bosnia and Herzegovina is atypical comparing it with developed countries, one can conclude that dynamic of the growth of the user’s number follows the world trends. Considering an experience of developed countries and a progressive growing trend of implementation of new information technologies in whole world, it is expected that Bosnia and Herzegovina will not be an exception. Informational technologies could contribute to the better exchange of information, better understanding, and could help in solving various social, economic, educational, cultural, health-care and other societal problems. Finally, implementation of new information technologies could help in an integration of the society and the state in a successful positioning of B&H in European integration and at the world market.
VIRTUAL PUBLIC IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
How much has Internet contributed to an understanding of those problems in B&H and how much has it influenced attitudes and choices of the public? The answer is as follows: for now, not so much, because of latency of the public in B&H and its reliance on traditional media of mass communication, primarily on TV, and because of the fact that Internet is still a »privilege« of minor number of people. But, as B&H is established the new type of Internet (Virtual) public, it could contribute in transforming of passive - latent public to a conscious or active public, that will resemble developed types of public initiatives, as exists in the world of reach democratic tradition. Through a genesis of the new type of public (Virtual publics) one can notice in virtual space forum discussions, where there exists a critical mass of participants, mainly active ones. It was noted that among the participants in forum sessions there is a certain number of persons that have participated in discussions on a regular basis. Those groups of regular and active participants are usually the most active in creating of the subjects on forum discussions, launching various issues and confirming own attitudes or trying to force them or defend them. That group of the most active participants can be considered as leaders of the new, Virtual public in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their ability to select the most important issues and to launch them to public - forum discussion and their courage to present their own arguments are spiritus movens (moving spirit) of the new, Virtual publics.
The importance of forum in a shaping of the attitudes of the public is contented in the ability of an individual to outgrow passivity of certain society and become an active participant in virtual discourse. Contribution of internet forums reflect in fact that it helps in transformation of a certain members of latent public, into the active participants in a sphere of public discourse. Internet public is able to transfer all active discussions from one to the other sphere, traditional to virtual and vice versa. According to previous research it is possible to prove that forum participants, although not journalists, used to develop such interesting discussion about the important social issues, that some journalists have used them for further research or publish some of them as quotations in media. Therefore, it could be concluded that forum discussions are becoming real virtual agora within which the participants exchange information, attitudes, opinions, and within which the new type of public has been established. That public will have a chance to influence or establish public opinion in the society by growth of the internet users and by transferring the discussions from virtual to real societies.
Because of all the above, favoring print media in Bosnia and Herzegovina to influence public more efficiently than internet communication within forums will be superior based on the patrons of theory of power. These patrons will still observe any member of audience as a »communication loner« directly influenced by the mass media. For an understanding of the new communicational situation, determined by Internet as a new media of communication, one must consider traditional theories on inefficiency of media – benefit and prize approach and new theories considering an influence of mass media as well.
This can not be done using the simple scheme of »stimulus – reaction«, but instead by observing and studying auditoriums and journalists. It is necessary to research short term and long term influence in total media space. It is also needed to consider dynamic development of informational technologies and their usage, as well as possibility of access to other data basis and their permanent expanding.
According to the results of the research, it could be concluded that the new internet public in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as evidenced by the growth of the users of internet and by the growth of the activity of that public, will have an important influence at the establishing of public opinion in Bosnia and Herzegovina and its more intensive actions. Until traditional types of public in Bosnia and Herzegovina have not reached the development of public that evolved in democracy, meanwhile the growing of the virtual public raises the question: which type of publics will more influence one another?
Considering the dramatic development of internet technologies as well as the dynamic growth of the new internet public, it is possible that the new type of public that is in the phase of establishment will have a stronger influence on the traditional, undeveloped types of publics. The new Internet public by its rapid growth will help in a development of the traditional types of publics in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Instead of being developed from the traditional types of public as a higher type of existence, Internet public has to substitute insufficient development of the traditional types of public. In such, for developed societies an illogical order (which for Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only one possible), is an atypical situation in relation with the influence of Internet at publics; by developing itself, it should develop the type of public that the previous ones should have represented. The possibilities of Internet discourse in Bosnia and Herzegovina have been shaped under the influence of the traditional type of latent publics and under the influence of global publics. With the positive communication trends that internet as a new media have brought, it is expectable that Bosnian society will gain positive influence in terms of general values of civil society, acceptance of democracy standards, and tolerance and communication without prejudices. With the growth of the users of the Internet and with the development of informational technologies, the new Internet publics will have an opportunity for faster development and profiling. It is predictable that the Internet publics will have faster development and a stronger influence on the traditional types of publics and in this way will benefit in the accepting of traditional values of civil society, progress, and finally reintegration of Bosnia and Herzegovina society.
Annual Report, (April 18, 2003). BH Telekom [On-line], 53 pages, Available: http://www.telecom.ba/onama/anrep2000.htm [February 26, 2004].
B. de Selding, P. (February 9, 2004) Eutelsat ready to inaugurate new services for Africa, (p. 14). Space News
BiH ima zabrinjavajuce mali procenat internet korisnika (BiH has tremendously small number of the Internet users), Net novinar (October 13, 2003). [On-line], 1 paragraph, Available: http://www.netnovinar.org/vij.html#broj [February 26, 2004].
Bosnia and Herzegovina, (December 18, 2003). The World Factbook - CIA web page, [On-line], Available: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/ factbook/geos/bk.html [February 26, 2003].
Communication Regulatory Agency, Introduction, (March 15, 2001). [Online] 2 pages, Available: http://www.cra.ba/en/about/?cid=162 [February 26, 2004].
Elbert, B. R. (1999). Introduction to Satellite Communication, 2nd Ed. Artech House, Boston
Flournoy, D. (2004). Broadband satellite, textbook, Ohio University, Athens
HT Net – O nama (HT Net – About us), (No date). Hrvatski telekom Mostar [On-line], 1 page, Available: http://www.tel.net.ba/ht_net/htnet01-1.htm [February 26, 2004].
Inet.ba, o nama (Inet.ba, about us), Inet (No date). [On-line], 1 page, Available: http://web.inet.ba/?sta=onama [February 26, 2004].
Internet usage in Europe, (2004). Internet World Stats [On-line], Available: http://www.internetworldstats.com/europa.htm [February 26, 2004].
Lakisat, (2003 – 2004). LakiSat - Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina [On-line] 2 pages, Available: http://www.lakisat.com/ [February 26, 2003].
Mahmutcehajic, R. (2003). Sarajevo Essays: Politics, Ideology, and Tradition, State University of New York Press, NY
McGhee, P. (February, 2002). Operators roll with the changes, (p. 31-32). Satellite Broadband
Master Sat Net - Networking Solutions, O nama (About us) (2003). [On-line] 1 page, Available: http://www.mastersat.net/hrv/index.htm [February 26, 2004].
O nama (About us), (2002-2003). Telekom Srpske, [On-line], 2 pages, Available: http://www.teol.net/cms/view.php/610.html [February 26, 2004].
Osmancevic, E. (2003). Internet, tradicionalna i virtualna javnost (Internet, Traditional and Virtual Public), Magistrat, Sarajevo
Sadic, A. (April 28, 2003). Informaticki sumrak u opcinama Tuzlanske zupanije (Internet twilight in the Tuzla County’s townships). Dnevni list, Mostar, p. 8
TNT Sat, Tuzla – Exclusive agency of Europe Online for Bosnia and Herzegovina (January 8, 2004), 2 pages, [On-line], Available: http://www.tnt-sat.co.ba/ [February 26, 2004].
* Enes Osmancevic is a Fellow of the Junior Faculty Development Program, which is sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department of State and administered by American Councils for International Education.
Research for this article was supported in part by the Junior Faculty Development Program, which is funded by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State, under authority of the Fulbright-Hays Act of 1961 as amended, and administered by the American Council for International Education: ACTR/ACCELS. The opinions expressed herein are the author's own and do not necessarily express the views of either ECA or the American Councils.